Convención sobre Bombas de Racimo

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La Convención contra Bombas de Racimo es un tratado internacional que prohibe el uso de bombas de racimo, un tipo de artefacto explosivo que dispersa explosivos pequeños sobre una zona. La convención fue adoptada el 30 de mayo del 2008 en Dublin, Irlanda.<ref>Baltimore Sun – Cluster-bomb ban U.S. opposes passes (actual passage)</ref> y fue abierta para firmas el 3 de diciembre de 2008 en Oslo. Entró en fuerza el 1 de agosto de 2010, seis meses después de que fue ratificada por 30 estados.<ref name=Article17>Article 17 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.</ref>

Los paises que ratifican la Convneción estarán obligados "nunca, debajo de ninguna circunstancia:"<ref name=Article1>Article 1 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Retrieved on Plantilla:Nowrap 2008.</ref>

(a) Utilizar bombas de racimo;
(b) Desarrollar, producir, adquirir, almacenar, retener o transferir a cualquier, directamente o indirectamente, bombas de racimo;

(c) Asistir, fomentar o inducir a cualquier entrar en cualquier actividad prohibida a un Estado debajo de esta Convención.

El tratado permite que ciertos tipos de armas con sub-municiones que no tienen un impacto indiscriminado de area o representan riesgos de dejar municiones sin explotar (MUSS). Tales armas deben seguir una serie de criterios estrictos para peso minimo, una limitación en el número de submuniciones, la capacidad para cada submunición individualmente para poder detectar a un objeto de blanco único y la presencia de mecanismos de autodestrucción o autodesactivación.<ref name="SMArt"/> También un número limitado de bombas de racimo pueden ser mantenidos para entrenamiento y desarrollo de metodos de detección, desminado y tecnicas de destrucción y contramedidas.


The impetus for the treaty, like that of the 1997 Ottawa Treaty to ban landmines, has been concern over the severe damage and risks to civilians from explosive weapons during and long after attacks. A varying proportion of submunitions dispersed by cluster bombs fail to explode on impact and can lie unexploded for years until disturbed. The sometimes brightly colored munitions are not camouflaged, but have been compared to toys or Easter eggs, attracting children at play.<ref>Plantilla:Cite web</ref><ref>Plantilla:Cite web</ref> Human rights activists claim that one in four casualties resulting from submunitions that fail to explode on impact are children who often pick up and play with the explosive canisters well after the conflict has ended.<ref name=nytimes>"Britain Joins a Draft Treaty on Cluster Munitions ", The New York Times, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref> The 2006 Lebanon War provided momentum for the campaign to ban cluster bombs. The United Nations estimated that up to 40% of Israeli cluster bomblets failed to explode on impact.<ref>Plantilla:Cite web</ref> Norway organized the independent Oslo process after discussions at the traditional disarmament forum in Geneva fell through in November 2006.<ref name=46nations>"46 Nations Push for Cluster Bomb Treaty", Associated Press via The Washington Post, February 23, 2007</ref>

The cluster munitions ban process, also known as the Oslo Process, began in February 2007 in Oslo. At this time, 46 nations issued the "Oslo Declaration", committing themselves to:

Conclude by 2008 a legally binding international instrument that prohibits the use and stockpiling of cluster munitions that cause unacceptable harm to civilians and secure adequate provision of care and rehabilitation to survivors and clearance of contaminated areas.<ref>"Towards a Convention on Cluster Munitions", Permanent Mission of Norway to the United Nations, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref><ref>Oslo Conference on Cluster Munitions, 22–Plantilla:Nowrap 2007: Declaration</ref>

The Oslo Process held meetings in Lima in May 2007 and Vienna in December 2007. In February 2008, 79 countries adopted the "Wellington Declaration", setting forth the principles to be included in the convention.<ref name=wellington>Declaration of the Wellington conference on cluster munitions. Retrieved on Plantilla:Nowrap 2008.</ref>

Adoption of the convention

Archivo:Stop cluster bombs march.jpg
Ban Advocates from Afghanistan and Ethiopia demonstrating during the May 2008 Dublin conference

Delegates from 107 nations agreed to the final draft of the treaty at the end of a ten-day meeting held in May 2008 in Dublin, Ireland.<ref>"Cluster bomb ban treaty approved", BBC News, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref> Its text was formally adopted on Plantilla:Nowrap 2008 by 107 nations,<ref>Plantilla:Cite news</ref> including 7 of the 14 countries that have used cluster bombs and 17 of the 34 countries that have produced them.<ref name=MAC>Mines Action Canada (2008). Plantilla:PDFlink. Retrieved on Plantilla:Nowrap 2008.</ref>

The treaty was opposed by a number of countries that produce or stockpile significant quantities of cluster munitions, including China, Russia, the United States, India, Israel, Pakistan and Brazil.<ref name=nytimes/> The U.S. has acknowledged humanitarian concerns about the use of cluster munitions, but insisted that the proper venue for a discussion of cluster munitions was the forum attached to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, which includes all major military powers.<ref>"U.S. Cluster Munitions Policy": Briefing by Stephen D. Mull, U.S. Department of State Acting Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs, May 21, 2008</ref> The U.S. has further stated that the development and introduction of "smart" cluster munitions, where each submunition contains its own targeting and guidance system as well as an auto-self-destruct mechanism, means that the problematic munitions are being moved away from in any case.<ref name=nytimes/> In 2006, Barack Obama voted to support a legislative measure to limit use of the bombs, while his general election opponent John McCain and his primary opponent Hillary Clinton (now U.S. Secretary of State) both voted against it.<ref>Plantilla:Cite web</ref>

The treaty allows for certain types of weapons with submunitions that do not have the indiscriminate area effects or pose the unexploded ordnance risks of cluster munitions. Such weapons must meet strict criteria for a minimum weight, a limited number of submunitions, the capacity for each submunition individually to detect and engage a single target object and the presence of electronic self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanisms. Australia, which supports the treaty, stated that the convention does not prohibit the SMArt 155 artillery shell that it has bought, which releases two self-guided self-destructing submunitions.<ref name="SMArt">"Fitzgibbon wants to keep SMArt cluster shells", Australia Broadcasting Corporation, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref>

In response to U.S. lobbying, and also concerns raised by diplomats from Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom and others, the treaty includes a provision allowing signatory nations to cooperate militarily with non-signatory nations. This provision is designed to provide legal protections to the military personnel of signatory nations engaged in military operations with the U.S. or other non-signatory nations that might use cluster munitions.<ref name=latimes>"British turnabout key to cluster bomb ban", Los Angeles Times, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref>

Prior to the Dublin meeting, the United Kingdom was thought to be one of a group of nations in a pivotal role whereby their cooperation could make or break the treaty. In a dramatic turn of events shortly before the end of the conference, Prime Minister Gordon Brown declared that the U.K. would withdraw all of its cluster bombs from service.<ref name=afp>"Observers laud landmark cluster bomb ban", AFP, Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref> This was done despite intense behind-the-scenes lobbying by the U.S. and objections by British government personnel who saw utility in the weapons.

The CCM was opened for signature at a ceremony at Oslo City Hall on 3–Plantilla:Nowrap 2008. By the end of the ceremony, 94 states had signed the treaty, including four (Ireland, the Holy See, Sierra Leone and Norway) which had also submitted their instruments of ratification. Signatories included 21 of the 27 member-states of the European Union and 18 of the 26 countries in NATO. Among the signatories were several states affected by cluster munitions, including Laos and Lebanon.

In November 2008, ahead of the signing Conference in Oslo, the European Parliament passed a resolution calling on all European Union governments to sign and ratify the Convention, as several EU countries had not yet declared their intention to do so.<ref>Cluster bombs: MEPs to press for signature of treaty ban last retrieved on Plantilla:Nowrap 2008</ref> Finland had declared it would not sign.<ref>Helsinki Times, 3 Nov. 2008: "Finland not to sign cluster munitions treaty"</ref>

Entry into force

According to article 17 of the treaty, the convention entered into force "on the first day of the sixth month after the month in which the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession has been deposited"<ref name=untc />. Since the thirtieth ratification was deposited during February 2010, the convention entered into force on Plantilla:Nowrap 2010; by that point, 38 nations had ratified the treaty.

As the convention entered into force, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon spoke of "not only the world's collective revulsion at these abhorrent weapons, but also the power of collaboration among governments, civil society and the United Nations to change attitudes and policies on a threat faced by all humankind".<ref name="bbc10829976">Plantilla:Cite web</ref> A spokesman for the International Committee of the Red Cross said "These weapons are a relic of the Cold War. They are a legacy that has to be eliminated because they increasingly won't work".<ref name="reuters">Plantilla:Cite web</ref> Nobel peace prize winner Jody Williams called the convention "the most important disarmament and humanitarian convention in over a decade"<ref name=reuters />.

Anti-cluster munitions campaigners praised the rapid progress made in the adoption of the convention, and expressed hope that even non-signatories – such as the US, China and Russia – would be discouraged from using the weapons by the entry into force of the convention.<ref name="bbc video">Plantilla:Cite web</ref> As one of the countries that did not ratify the treaty, the United States said that cluster bombs are a legal form of weapon, and that they had a "clear military utility in combat." It also said that compared to other types of weapons, cluster bombs are less harmful to civilians.<ref name="bbc10829976"/>

Article 11 requires the first Meeting of States Parties to be held within 12 months of the entry into force. The first such meeting is scheduled to be held in Laos on 8–Plantilla:Nowrap 2010.<ref>Plantilla:Cite web</ref>

Ratification status

Archivo:Cluster Munitions Convention.svg
Signatories to the Convention (blue) and ratifications (purple)


Plantilla:As of, 38 states have ratified the convention:<ref name=untc/> Plantilla:Multicol



<references group="note"></references>


Plantilla:As of, a further 70 states have signed but not yet ratified the treaty:<ref name=untc/> Plantilla:Multicol




Most major producers of cluster munitions and their components, including the US, Russia, China, India, Israel, Poland, Pakistan and Brazil, have not signed the Convention.

See also


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External links


Non-governmental organisations

ca:Normes sobre les municions de dispersió da:Konventionen mod klyngebomber de:Übereinkommen über Streumunition es:Normas acerca de las municiones de racimo fr:Convention sur les armes à sous-munitions id:Konvensi Munisi Tandan it:Convenzione internazionale sulle bombe a grappolo ja:クラスター弾に関する条約 no:Klaseammunisjonskonvensjonen fi:Rypälepommikielto sv:Konventionen om klusterammunition th:อนุสัญญาว่าด้วยระเบิดลูกปราย uk:Конвенція про касетні боєприпаси zh:集束彈藥公約